Biases

Here is a list of all Biases in the Catalogue.  Check back regularly as we are adding new ones over time.

 

Referral filter bias

Referral of any group of unwell people from primary to secondary to tertiary care, causing an increase in the concentration of rare cases, more complex cases or people with worse outcomes.

Read More
 

Reporting Biases

The selective disclosure or withholding of information by parties involved in the design, conduct, analysis, or dissemination of a study or research findings.

Read More
 

Selection bias

occurs when individuals or groups in a study differ systematically from the population of interest leading to a systematic error in an association or outcome.

Read More
 

Spectrum bias

Occurs when a diagnostic test is studied in a different range of individuals to the intended population for the test

Read More
 

Spin Bias

The intentional or unintentional distorted interpretation of research results, unjustifiably suggesting favourable or unfavourable findings that can result in misleading conclusions

Read More
 

Verification bias

when only a proportion of the study group receives confirmation of the diagnosis by the reference standard, or if some patients receive a different reference standard at the time of diagnosis.

Read More
 

Volunteer bias

Participants volunteering to take part in a study intrinsically have different characteristics from the general population of interest.

Read More
 

Wrong sample size bias

When the wrong sample size is used in a study: small sample sizes often lead to chance findings, while large sample sizes are often statistically significant but not clinically relevant.

Read More