Biases

Here is a list of all Biases in the Catalogue.  Check back regularly as we are adding new ones over time.

 

Previous opinion bias

The results of a previous assessment, test result or diagnosis, if known, may affect the results of subsequent processes on the same patient.

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Recall bias

Systematic error due to differences in accuracy or completeness of recall to memory of past events or experiences.

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Selection bias

occurs when individuals or groups in a study differ systematically from the population of interest leading to a systematic error in an association or outcome.

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Verification bias

In a diagnostic accuracy study, confirmation of a diagnosis is not consistent between groups of people: whilst some participants receive confirmation of the diagnosis by one reference standard, some have no confirmation, or have confirmation by a different reference standard.

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Volunteer bias

Participants volunteering to take part in a study intrinsically have different characteristics from the general population of interest.

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Wrong sample size bias

When the wrong sample size is used in a study: small sample sizes often lead to chance findings, while large sample sizes are often statistically significant but not clinically relevant.

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